memory and strategies to learning

Unlocking Dyslexic Potential: The Convergence of Rote Learning, Imagery, and Hypnosis

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For many, the power of visual memory remains an untapped reservoir of cognitive potential. Visual memory, the ability to recall information presented visually, can be a game-changer, especially for those who struggle with traditional textual information. But what does the evidence say about this, and how can one harness its potential?

I have an interest in visual learning which I have found over the years to be a highly effective method of overcoming short-term memory challenges, but does require some effort in the early days to organise things in a visual manner.

How most of us habitually learn things – Basic Mental Rote Memory

Rote memory, often termed ‘repetition-based learning,’ is the process of memorising information based on repetition. It’s the most basic form of memory, where learners repeat information until it becomes ingrained. While effective for certain tasks like memorizing multiplication tables or phone numbers, rote memory doesn’t necessarily promote understanding or long-term retention.

Historical Context of Rote Learning

Historically, education was about transmitting knowledge from one generation to the next. Before the advent of printing and widespread literacy, oral repetition was the primary method of preserving knowledge. Religious texts, historical accounts, and cultural stories were passed down orally, and rote memorization ensured accuracy and consistency.

With the establishment of formal education systems, rote learning became a standard method. It was efficient, especially in larger classroom settings, and allowed for standardized assessments.

Advantages of Rote Learning

  1. Foundation Building: Rote memorization can provide a foundation. For instance, memorizing multiplication tables can make advanced mathematical problems easier to tackle.
  2. Consistency: It ensures that everyone learns the same information in the same way.
  3. Assessment: Standardized tests, which assess a student’s ability to recall specific information, are easier to administer and grade.
  4. Skill Acquisition: Some skills, like playing a musical instrument or typing, benefit from repetitive practice, a form of rote learning.

Critiques of Rote Learning

  1. Lack of Deep Understanding: Rote learning doesn’t necessarily promote comprehension. Students might recall information for an exam but forget it shortly after.
  2. Stifles Critical Thinking: Emphasizing memorization might not encourage critical thinking, problem-solving, or creativity.
  3. Not Suitable for All Learners: Every student is unique, and rote learning doesn’t cater to different learning styles or paces.
  4. Overemphasis on Standardization: It can lead to a one-size-fits-all approach, neglecting the diverse needs and potentials of students.

Shift from Rote to Conceptual Learning

In recent decades, there’s been a shift towards more holistic and student-centric education approaches. Conceptual learning, where understanding concepts and applying knowledge is prioritised over mere memorisation, is gaining traction. This approach fosters critical thinking, adaptability, and lifelong learning. In classrooms of old, the times tables thrashed out at the tap of a ruler may have long gone.

However, it’s essential to note that rote learning still has its place. For instance, language learning often involves rote memorisation of vocabulary before moving on to constructing sentences and understanding grammar.

Dyslexia and Rote Learning: Unraveling the Challenges

Dyslexia, a neurological condition characterised by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities, presents unique challenges when it comes to traditional rote learning methods. Here’s a deeper look into the specific hurdles faced by individuals with dyslexia in the context of rote memorisation:

1. Phonological Processing Difficulties:
At the core of dyslexia is a challenge with phonological processing, which is the ability to discern and manipulate the sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. Rote learning, especially in the context of language-based subjects, often requires this skill. For example, memorizing a poem or a list of vocabulary words can be particularly challenging for someone with dyslexia due to difficulties in processing and recalling phonological information.

2. Working Memory Constraints:
Many individuals with dyslexia have challenges with working memory, the system that holds and processes new and already stored information. Rote learning, which often relies on repetition and holding information in one’s mind for short periods, can be taxing for those with working memory limitations.

3. Sequencing Difficulties:
Rote learning often involves remembering sequences, such as the order of historical events or steps in a mathematical formula. Dyslexics might struggle with sequencing, making such tasks more challenging.

4. Slow Retrieval:
While individuals with dyslexia can understand and store information as effectively as their peers, they often have slower retrieval speeds. This means that even if they’ve rote-memorized a piece of information, recalling it under pressure (like during a test) can be difficult.

5. Over-reliance on Visual Memory:
Many dyslexics rely more on visual memory as a compensatory strategy. While this can be a strength in many contexts, rote learning that is predominantly auditory (like listening and repeating) might not play to this strength.

6. Reduced Self-Esteem and Anxiety:
Repeated struggles with rote learning can lead to reduced self-confidence and increased anxiety in educational settings for dyslexic students. This emotional toll can further hinder their ability to engage with rote memorization tasks.

7. Inefficient Learning Strategies:
Due to their challenges with traditional learning methods, individuals with dyslexia might develop alternative strategies that might not be as efficient for rote memorization. For instance, they might rely more on understanding the broader concept rather than memorizing specific details.

The Power of Imagery and Memory

Imagery, on the other hand, taps into our brain’s natural ability to process visual information rapidly and efficiently. A study from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology found that the human brain can process and recall images seen for as little as 13 milliseconds. This rapid processing allows for quicker and often more durable memory formation. Imagery transcends mere repetition, creating vivid mental pictures that enhance understanding and recall. For instance, instead of rote memorizing a list of items, visualizing them in a familiar setting (like one’s kitchen) can make recall easier and more effective.

The Connection Between Text and Imagery

For dyslexics, who might find textual information challenging, visual memory can offer an alternative pathway for information retention. When text is paired with relevant images, it bridges the gap between rote memory and imagery, making the information more accessible and memorable.

Dyslexia, Rote Learning, and the Potential of Imagery in Hypnosis

Dyslexia, a neurological condition characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities, presents unique challenges when it comes to traditional rote learning methods. However, could there be a silver lining in the form of imagery and hypnosis? Let’s delve deeper.

Challenges of Rote Learning for Dyslexics:
(As previously detailed: Phonological Processing Difficulties, Working Memory Constraints, Sequencing Difficulties, Slow Retrieval, Over-reliance on Visual Memory, Reduced Self-Esteem and Anxiety, Inefficient Learning Strategies.)

The Power of Imagery and Imagination:
Many dyslexics rely more on visual memory as a compensatory strategy. This strength in visual thinking can be a foundation upon which to build. Imagery and imagination, when harnessed correctly, can be powerful tools to aid in understanding and memory retention. Instead of trying to remember abstract concepts or sequences, visualizing them as vivid, interconnected images or stories can make them more tangible and memorable.

Hypnosis: A Potential Tool for Enhanced Learning:
Hypnosis, particularly cognitive-behavioural hypnotherapy, often employs guided imagery and deepened states of relaxation to help individuals access and strengthen their imaginative capabilities. While there might not be extensive clinical evidence linking hypnosis to improved learning outcomes for dyslexics, the process’s emphasis on visualization and imagination can be particularly resonant.

  1. Deepened Focus: Hypnosis can help individuals achieve a state of deep concentration, potentially making it easier to engage with and retain information.
  2. Enhanced Visualization: Through hypnosis, individuals can be guided to visualize complex concepts, making them easier to understand and remember.
  3. Stress Reduction: The relaxation component of hypnosis can help reduce the anxiety and stress associated with learning challenges, creating a more conducive environment for learning.

While rote learning poses challenges for those with dyslexia, the potential of imagery and hypnosis offers a promising avenue to explore. Leveraging the natural strengths of dyslexic individuals, such as their ability for visual thinking, and combining it with the imaginative power unlocked by hypnosis, might pave the way for more effective and personalized learning strategies. It’s an area worth considering and exploring further, even if just to harness the power of our imaginations for better learning outcomes.

Memory Test Quiz: Clock & Repetition

Test your memory skills with this simple yet effective quiz using just a clock and the power of repetition. This quiz is divided into two parts: the first focuses on scanning words, and the second emphasizes creating images for each number. Let’s begin!

  1. Assign an image to each number from 1 to 12. For example, 1 could be a sun, 2 could be a pair of shoes, 3 could be a tricycle, and so on.
  2. Look at a clock or a watch.
  3. As the second hand moves, visualise the image associated with each number.
  4. Continue this for one full rotation of the second hand (one minute).
  5. After the minute has passed, write down as many images as you can remember in the correct order.

Turn the Paper over

  • look at this sequence 5,8,9,3,10,6,8
Memory sequence Test

When you look at the numbers think of the images, feel those images and link the story of those images with its neighbour, scan a few times until you are comfortable, but do not attempt to remember the numbers by rote or repetition.

Look away, deep breath, relax and say out loud the sequence, and repeat the sequence in reverse

Comment below on your findings.

It is possible to learn and reinforce these skills.


  1. Shaywitz, S. E. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Knopf.
  2. Ramachandran, V. S., & Hubbard, E. M. (2001). Synaesthesia—A window into perception, thought and language. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8(12), 3-34.
  3. Kosslyn, S. M., Ganis, G., & Thompson, W. L. (2001). Neural foundations of imagery. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(9), 635-642.
  4. Oakley, D. A., & Halligan, P. W. (2013). Hypnotic suggestion: Opportunities for cognitive neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 14(8), 565-576.
  5. Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why don’t students like school? A cognitive scientist answers questions about how the mind works and what it means for the classroom. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  6. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144-156.
  7. Gathercole, S. E., & Alloway, T. P. (2006). Practitioner review: Short-term and working memory impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders: Diagnosis and remedial support. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(1), 4-15.

Disclaimer, Please Read: The information provided in this article is for illustrative and informational purposes only. It does not establish a therapist-patient relationship. For medical issues or emergencies, always consult with a licensed medical professional. For non-clinical challenges related to stress, anxiety, and other emotional or behavioural concerns, considering a consultation with a therapist may be beneficial. Bohangar City Practice is a registered Cognitive Behavioural Hypnotherapy practice, specialising in combining cognitive behavioural techniques with hypnosis to address various challenges and promote well-being. Any questions, please do reach out

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MULTI-MODAL THERAPY: Cognitive, Behavioural, Hypnotherapy, Mindfulness, etc.

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If you are seeking Therapy please reach out for an initial free consultation call. Bohangar Hypnotherapy Practice. Hope you enjoy this blog post, would love to hear your comments  

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